Alternative Dispute Resolution in Nigeria is practiced within Nigeria at the institutional and individual level with and without the involvement of the court system.
The list of institutions that practiced ADR in Nigeria, namely, The Chambers of Commerce, private enterprises, industry groups etc. In the case of individuals are judges, specially trained practitioners (i.e. arbitrators, mediators, accountants), elders, traditional rulers, chiefs, religious leaders.
The practitioners involved in ADR is industry-specific that have technical expertise in specific areas like environmental disputes, labour disputes, family law, etc.
Furthermore, the current Nigerian laws have sufficient provisions that have addressed Alternative Dispute Resolution in Nigeria and the methods in resolving disputes.
These provisions of the laws are discussed below.
(1) The 1999 Constitution
The Constitution is the supreme law of the land that endorses arbitration. Section 19(d) of the Constitution states that part of Nigeria’s foreign policy objective is respect for international law and treaty obligations. Nigeria also seeks for settlement of international disputes by negotiation, mediation, conciliation, arbitration and adjudication.
(2) Arbitration Laws
Nigeria, like other progressive countries, has subscribed to many international ADR Laws and Rules. The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCTRAL Model Law of 1985) and UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules domesticated in Nigeria under the Arbitration and Conciliation Act (ACA).
(3) Other Federal Acts
Nigerian body of laws is replete with several statutes that provide for arbitration or other ADR mechanisms. However, a fewer list is mentioned below of the law and the applicable sections:
Sections 11 and 30 (4) of the Matrimonial Causes Act (Cap. M7 LFN 2004). This section talks about reconciliation between the husband and wife or parties. As they can get the Marriage conciliator to take an oath of secrecy to settle out of court.
section 2, Consumer Protection Council Act, (Cap C25 LFN 2004),
sections 29 and 33, of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act (Cap. E12 LFN 2004),
Sections 4, 8, 9, 20, 22 of the Trade Disputes Act (Cap. T8 LFN 2004),
section 11 of the Petroleum Act(Cap. PI0 LFN 2004),
section 26 of the Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission Act, (Cap. N17 LFN 2004);
section 27 of the Public Enterprises (Privatization and Commercialization) Act, (Cap. P38 LFN 2004),
section 22 of the Nigerian LNG (Fiscal Incentives, Guarantee and Assurance) Act (Cap. N87 LFN 2004),
Section 49 of the Nigerian Co-operative Societies Act (Cap. N98 LFN 2004);
section 5 of the National War College Act (Cap N82 LFN 2004);
sections 3 and 6 of the National Boundary Commission, Etc. Act; (Cap. N10 LFN 2004),
section 3 of the Advisory Council on Religious Affairs Act (Cap. A8 LFN 2004);
section 4 of the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion Act( Cap. N62 LFN 2004),
section 4 of the Nigerian Communications Commission Act (Cap. N97 LFN 2004) etc.
(4) Court Laws and Rules
Lastly, Court laws and rules govern procedures and proceedings for the conduct of business in the court.
Cooperative accounting is the applications of financial accounting principles, concepts and policies to cooperatives in order to ascertain its financial position, promote accountability, efficient management and ensure viable operations of co-operative financial resources.
Furthermore, the cooperative law makes the keeping of proper sets of accounting records and the preparation of the final accounts compulsory for every registered cooperative society and sets of information that must be disclosed in the final account.
ACCOUNTS AND RECORDS.
Member’s passbook is opened for every member which serves as a personal account on which all transactions between a member and the society are recorded. Moreover, below is the front- and back-page sample of members passbook.
2. ANALYSIS BOOK
Analysis book is use for recording members’ contributions, loan disbursed and repayment, membership withdrawal, fine and other incomes on monthly basis. Also, this book helps to analyse the transaction on a monthly basis. This book help cooperative to always spread open in front of members at any general meeting of the society.
3. PERSONAL LEDGER
Personal ledger helps to record member’s contributions of shares, savings, deposits, withdrawals, loan and refunds. In addition, the entries into this book are from the individual’s entries in the analysis book which is also entered in the passbook. With proper recording of transaction, individual cash balances can be seen at a glance.
4. LOAN REGISTER
Loan register is a source document containing information regarding all loans granted at any time. In addition, such information includes membership personal number; member identity number; committee meeting minute number; cheque number. Also, includes amount authorized and approved; amount applied for and granted; date of approval and refund; period of the loan.
5. CASH RECEIPT
Cash receipt helps to record all money received in cash or in cheque. Also, it is financial transactions used as supporting evidence that money have been received on behalf of the society. Moreover, all receipts must be serially numbered and used in that order.
5. INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS’ CONTRIBUTION
In co-operative management, recording all transactions and producing financial statements on time is important. These statements are the output based on each member’s contributions. By tabulating each member’s share and savings contributions in the individual contribution table, it’s easy to see the breakdown of each member’s contributions. Column A shows the fraction of each member’s share contribution, while column B shows their savings contribution.
The cooperative law all over the world made the keeping of proper books of accounting records compulsory. In the light of the above, seeking expert help from those with practical experience become crucial in cooperative accounting system. If you require the best way to manage a co-operative society is to buy co-operative book in Amazon.com.
As a freelancers it is however, essential that they know what accounting tools all are about. Accounting Tools are software that enables businesses to track and record financial activities in compliance with legal and taxation regulations.
How much money can freelance professionals make per year?
If you’re interested in freelancing, various types of work are available. Typically, professions that require more technical skills can earn more for freelancers.
In USA, there are 57 million freelancers’ (51%) say no amount of money can entice them to take traditional job. They enjoy the following.
Ability to work and stay in any location.
CNBC report shows that the average hourly rate and annual salary for most in-demand freelancing jobs as stated below. This article put forward 13 professional freelancers with average hourly expectations..
Writers: On average, a freelance writer earns $30-40/hr or around $42,000 annually.
Editors: Freelance editors usually earn around $25 to $35 per hour, an average yearly salary of approximately $40,000.
Programmers: Freelance programmers across different languages earn $60-70/hr or $120,000 annually.
General developers: A freelance developer typically charges $50-60 per hour, earning an annual salary of around $100,000.
Mobile developers: Also, Mobile app developers typically earn an hourly rate of $55-65 as freelancers, equating to an annual salary of $100,000.
Web developers: Freelance web developers earn an average of $90,000 annually by designing and creating websites at an hourly rate of $50-60.
Graphic designers: A freelance graphic designer typically charges $40-45 per hour, earning an annual salary of around $90,000.
Transcribers: Freelance transcriptionists can also earn an average of $20-25 per hour, adding to a yearly salary of around $32,000.
Online marketers: Freelance digital marketers typically earn an hourly rate of around $50, resulting in an approximate annual salary of $100,000.
Photographers: A freelance photographer has an hourly rate between $35-45/hr, with an annual salary of around $42,000.
CRM managers: A customer relations manager (CRM) expects to make between $50 to 60/hr, with an year salary of approximately $120,000.
Data analysts: A freelance who specialises on data analyst earn between $55 to 65/hr, annual salary of $100,000.
Bookkeepers: Lastly, an individual who works as a freelance bookkeeper usually earns an hourly rate of $30 to $35, which translates to an annual salary of approximately $40,000.
8 Accounting Tools Relevant for Freelancers
As businesses increasingly expect growth, they must have accounting tools that cater to the needs of freelancers and content creators.
These accounting tools will help freelancers meet their business needs and fulfil their obligations to the government. With the growing demand, the average hourly wages of freelancers can also increase, and proper data capturing becomes crucial.
Two QuickBooks products are actually useful as Accounting Tools Relevant for Freelancers. They are QuickBooks self-employed and QuickBooks Online Simple Start.
Similarly, Wave’s accounting software streamlines invoice and cash flow management, allowing entrepreneurs to focus on business growth.
One of the best overall accounting tools important for freelancers. Zoho Books is an online accounting software that streamlines financial management, automating business workflows, and enables seamless collaboration across departments.
FreshBooks provides time-saving tools to run your small business efficiently
ZipBooks is a robust platform that simplifies the management of your business with its beautiful and intuitive interface.
This tool streamlines invoicing by centralizing invoice creation, branding, previewing/sending, and receipt.
This tool is designed for freelancers to track and analyze their finances.
Fiverr Workspace Blog provides effective payment and back-office management resources for small businesses and freelancers.
Freelancers will earn money, receive payments and also have debtors owing them for their services. Appropriate bookkeeping skills will always stand as the key difference between a performing or non-performing freelancing business.
Important of Accounting Tools Important for Freelancers
First, it makes them to keep track of incomes and expenses..
It makes them to staying on top of all invoicing issues
In addition, it makes them to keep accurate records for tax payment
It makes them to appreciate the work of an accountant and auditor
Also, is ensures the timely monitoring of daily business tasks and activities
It provides freelancers on how to take charge and defend business assets when bad times strike.
It makes freelancers to be motivated of their performance
It also protects freelancers against the legal consequences of not keeping accurate records for tax purpose.
It makes their work and reports to be more professional
Lastly, it makes them to be organised and able to budget for the future earnings and expenses.
It is essential for every writer who earn income to be familiar with the accounting tools. Also, to submit documents come tax time and annual report to monitor financial performance. In addition, if you need help, there are many step-by-step tutorials on YouTube or contact ohimai consulting.
How accountant use Drone technology to achieve their task depends on the sectors or schedule of activities. In addition, drones are unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that can fly remotely.
The global drone market predicts to increase from $26.3 billion in 2021 to $41.3 billion by 2026. Also, in 2020, both US and the UK used drones to deliver drugs during the COVID-19 pandemic (Appelbaum et al., 2020).
Drone technology has proven helpful in war zones and intelligence gathering and also in a civilian role, such as:
In Germany, there are limited zones outside protected areas with high urban density or people conglomerations.
Also, all EU Member States, including Norway and Liechtenstein.
Switzerland and Iceland are also expected to apply this regulation soon.
In United States for example, they used drone technology for their operation(Ovaska-Few, 2017).
In 2013, Poland passed a law allowing the commercial operation of drones, which led to the birth of Drone Powered Solutions.
South Africa that has entirely established drone regulations in place which was carefully integrated into existing aviation law.
Lastly, in Australia, Rio Tinto who has its facility in a remote area planned in 2016 to start using drone to monitor mine sites including the staff.
Companies that have used drone in their workplace and in others area of operations.
It was recorded that PwC completed its first stock count audit using drone technology. With the assistance of a drone, they were able to capture images at a coal reserve in South Wales and used them to measure the volume of the coal, based on the measurement of volume.
Amazon and Google are already testing ways to deliver packages with drones.
Facebook has started using drones to provide internet connections in remote locations.
Basin Electric’s utilization of drones has enhanced efficiency and safety while concurrently reducing costs.
Furthermore, Ford Motor Company filed a patent to start the use of drones for dead bateries. The patent was filed on 3rd February, 2017 and circulated on March 8th, 2022, and assigned serial number 11271420.
How Accountant Use Drone Technology to the Accounting Profession.
Source: Naira Technology
With the help of drone technology, however, accountants can now complete their work in a shorter amount of time. Technological advancements have significantly changed the accounting and auditing profession in recent years.
In 2017, the emergence of drone technology has revolutionized the accounting and auditing profession. Drones have opened up new possibilities for accountants to perform their tasks more efficiently and effectively.
Emerging technologies like AI, blockchain, big data, the IOT, and drone technology have revolutionized accounting profession (Qasim et al., 21).
For example, accounting and audit firms that work with clients in mining and inventory can utilize drone technology to take thousands of pictures and measurements of a site (Ovaska-Few,2017).
Also, this can aid in accurate assessments of holdings, making tasks like physically measuring coal a thing of the past. An estimated volume can be obtained in less time with just a two-meter GPS Tracking pole.
What are the Benefits of Drone Technology to the Accounting and Audit profession.
Perform physical inventory: Drone could recount inventory if required-data feed repeatedly into audit app that re-performs the process. Using drones to automate livestock inventory count reduced count time from 681 hours to 19 hours (Qasim et al., 21).
Accuracy: Produce accurate data that can be relevant for future forecast and planning. It depend on how accountant use drone technology to collect insight into the condition of assets. This is faster, cheaper, safer and more accurate than traditional methods (Johnson, 2022).
Save Cost: Drones may save money for accounting clients, who can use them for stock takes, mapping, safety monitoring and to inspect bridges and building.
Productivity: It can enhance productivity
Also, Reduce the risk of injury: he benefit in health and safety as the need for someone to climb over the coal pile are removed.
Speed: Helps speed up some business and accounting processes.
Monitoring strategies . Help monitor staff, operation and some dangerous zone. For instance, drones can assist the firm or staff to take account area difficult to reach.
Storage of Long-term data: Moreover, drone methods allow for storage of long-term data. This is useful to account for physical factors (like weather, light conditions and geomorphology of the beach) for more spatio-temporal analysis.
Automate and accelerate repetitive accounting tasks (Qasim et al., 21).
The technology produces massive amounts of data that require interpretation and translation into meaningful information for informed business decisions.
Also, as accountants keeping up to date with new technologies and understanding their potential to enhance efficiency and effectiveness is essential. Developing the necessary skills to interpret and present data will enable them to add value to their employers. Since the drones technology are control by expert . However, drones are prone to making mistakes just like any other technology, which is why one can exempt them from errors.
Furthermore, competent accountants who are conversant with latest technology, play a crucial role in helping companies thrive and maintain a competitive advantage. It is imperative that organizations have skilled accountants on their team to achieve these goals.
Implications of How Accountant use drone Technology to the Accountants and Auditors
Be part of the at least 95% that will accept this new technology if they must prepare for the future.
Develop a new skill that is all-encompassing for them to be relevant every time and drive the development of accounting profession.
For companies to successfully transform, there will be a great demand for individuals with fundamental knowledge and expertise. For instance, such individuals must possess the necessary skills and understanding to support the company’s transformational goals.
Also, become a consultant in the field to remain relevant and being in change of the world where we live by data.
Become a strategic thinker.
Apply professional judgement whenever is necessary and obtain a better results
Establish Drone-focused department that enable accounting firms to handle all matter related to drone.
Check the impact of drones on client’s business operations.
Lastly, it is vital for every accountant or auditors to be familiar with the present drone regulations in their countries.
In this article, the writer examined how accountant use drone technology and to achieve their work on daily basis. Similarly, drones can improve the accuracy and efficiency of audits. However, how they can use it to collect data and perform inspections in hard-to-reach areas.
Consequently, the article highlighted the potential impact of commercial drones on the accounting profession, with predictions that this technology will revolutionize traditional accounting procedures (Ovaska-Few, 2017). Accounting professionals and academics need to recognize the significance of drone technology and patronize the suppliers as it is here to stay. In addion, the sooner we adapt to this technology and use it to their advantage, the better. Accountants and auditors are condition to embrace this new technology and see it as an improvement to their jobs instead of threat.
Purchase orders (PO) are essential for an accountant to help achieve financial goals and is one of the key Source Documents in Accounting. The buyer sends these orders to the vendor or sellers or suppliers, outlining what they expect for the order and when it should arrive. In contrast, a sales order generated by the supplier and sent to the buyer. Additionally, the supplier generates an invoice to show the buyer how much they owe for the purchased goods.
Benefits of Purchase Orders (PO)
Controlling the procurement of products and services from external suppliers is easier with purchase order.
The inventory process is more accessible with the help of PO. Once the supplier receives the PO, they will retrieve the items listed in the PO from their inventory.
The Purchase Order acts as a legal document that helps prevent future transaction disputes.
It prevent duplicate orders by keeping track of order and from whom, which can be challenging when a company decides to scale its business.
Overall, a well-organized purchase order system helps simplify the inventory and shipping process by keeping track of incoming orders.
The process of initiating a purchase order should begin with:
When a buyer needs goods, they start by creating a purchase requisition. This document helps to keep track of the items ordered and is sent to the purchasing department within the company. It also helps the company keep track of expenses. The acountant can only create purchase order once an authorized manager has approved the purchase requisition.
Once the buyer has confirmed the goods they wish to purchase, they will initiate a PO. This document will include the date of the order, FOB shipping information, discount terms, buyer and seller names, a description of the goods under process, item number, price, quantity, and the PO number as shown in the attachment.
The seller can accept or reject a PO with all the transaction and buyer’s requirements. If the seller agrees with the PO, it becomes a legally binding contract.
Keeping a record of the purchase order is crucial for buyers. The demand remains active until the company receive all or part of the goods.
Goods Receive Note (GRN) is issue after successful delivery from suppliers. Each order has an assigned unique number associated with the Purchase order number. The accountant can use this number to ensure that the goods received match those ordered and listed on the GRN.
Before company accountant make payment, they will verify that the Purchase order number matches the invoice. This ensures that the charges to pay by the buyer are the correct amount for the goods before processing the payment.