Cooperative Accounting

Co-operative society and accounting system.

Cooperative accounting is the applications of financial accounting principles, concepts and policies to cooperatives in order to ascertain its financial position, promote accountability, efficient management and ensure viable operations of co-operative financial resources.

In other words, the accounting system and bookkeeper accurately record and report the cooperative’s daily business transactions.

Furthermore, the cooperative law makes the keeping of proper sets of accounting records and the preparation of the final accounts compulsory for every registered cooperative society and sets of information that must be disclosed in the final account.

Moreover, the cash books and receipts are source documents, while income and expenditure accounts and balance sheets are final accounts.



Member’s passbook is opened for every member which serves as a personal account on which all transactions between a member and the society are recorded. Moreover, below is the front- and back-page sample of members passbook.

Sample of members; passbook showing front page and back page of document used in cooperative accounting.


Also, analysis book is use for recording members’ contributions, loan disbursed and repayment, membership withdrawal, fine and other incomes on monthly basis. However, this book helps to analyse the transaction on a monthly basis. In addition, this book help cooperative to always spread open in front of members at any general meeting of the society.

Sample of Analysis book were various income received by cooperative are analyzed. It is one key document used in cooperative


Personal ledger helps to record member’s contributions of shares, savings, deposits, withdrawals, loan and refunds. In addition, the entries into this book are from the individual’s entries in the analysis book which is also entered in the passbook. With proper recording of transaction, individual cash balances can be seen at a glance.

Sample of personal ledger that shows the total contribution by each member and also their balances. it is one key document used in cooperative


Obviously, Loan register is a source document containing information regarding all loans granted at any time. In addition, such information includes membership personal number; member identity number; committee meeting minute number; cheque number. Also, includes amount authorized and approved; amount applied for and granted; date of approval and refund; period of the loan.

Sample of Loan register used as a key in cooperative accounting.


Also, cash receipt helps to record all money received in cash or in cheque. Also, it is financial transactions used as supporting evidence that money have been received on behalf of the society. Moreover, all receipts must be serially numbered and used in that order.

Sample cash receipt used in cooperative


Moreover, a cash book is a financial record that shows all cash receipts and disbursements, including bank deposits, withdrawals, and balances.

Cask book used in cooperative accounting


Additionally, in co-operative management, recording all transactions and producing financial statements on time is important. Clearly, these statements are the output based on each member’s contributions. By tabulating each member’s share and savings contributions in the individual contribution table, it’s easy to see the breakdown of each member’s contributions. Column A shows the fraction of each member’s share contribution, while column B shows their savings contribution.


A general ledger is a cooperative financial record-keeping system that uses debit and credit account records. It can validate a trial balance, such as bank charges, telephone, and travelling expenses and asset account.

general ledger used in cooperative accounting


The Income and Expenditure Account summarises all the income and expenses incurred during the current accounting year. Its primary objective is to calculate the surplus or deficit. However, cooperatives only declare surplus or deficit, not profit or loss, since they are exempt from paying taxes.

income and expenditure account,  cooperative accounting


A balance sheet is a financial statement that shows a company’s assets, liabilities, and equity on a specific date. It summarises the business’s overall value at a particular time, like a snapshot.

statement of financial position, Cooperative accounting


In addition, a cash flow statement is a financial record that presents a company’s incoming and outgoing cash for a specific period. This document shows the cash flows, the money that comes in and goes out of the business. Cooperative uses these statements to keep track of, document, monitor, and report these transactions.

 cash flow statement, cooperative accounting.


Therefore, cooperative laws around the world require the maintenance of proper accounting records. However, seeking assistance from experts with practical experience can help improve your cooperative accounting system. Furthermore, if you are looking for the best way to manage a cooperative society, consider purchasing a revised cooperative book from our book-shop or at

Download free Excel financial model designed for cooperative accounting management.

If you are facing any issues related to the financial model, please feel free to contact me for consultancy services.

Alternative Dispute Resolution in Nigeria.

Top Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) in Nigeria.

Alternative Dispute Resolution in Nigeria is practiced within Nigeria at the institutional and individual level with and without the involvement of the court system

The list of institutions that practiced ADR in Nigeria, namely, The Chambers of Commerce, private enterprises, industry groups etc. In the case of individuals are judges, specially trained practitioners (i.e. arbitrators, mediators, accountants), elders, traditional rulers, chiefs, religious leaders. 

The practitioners involved in ADR is industry-specific that have technical expertise in specific areas like environmental disputes, labour disputes, family law, etc.

Furthermore, the current Nigerian laws have sufficient provisions that have addressed Alternative Dispute Resolution in Nigeria and the methods in resolving disputes.

These provisions of the laws are discussed below.

(1) The 1999 Constitution

The Constitution is the supreme law of the land that endorses arbitration. Section 19(d) of the Constitution states that part of Nigeria’s foreign policy objective is respect for international law and treaty obligations. Nigeria also seeks for settlement of international disputes by negotiation, mediation, conciliation, arbitration and adjudication.

(2) Arbitration Laws

Nigeria, like other progressive countries, has subscribed to many international ADR Laws and Rules. The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCTRAL Model Law of 1985) and UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules domesticated in Nigeria under the Arbitration and Conciliation Act (ACA).

(3) Other Federal Acts

Nigerian body of laws is replete with several statutes that provide for arbitration or other ADR mechanisms. However, a fewer list is mentioned below of the law and the applicable sections: 

  1. Sections 11 and 30 (4) of the Matrimonial Causes Act (Cap. M7 LFN 2004). This section talks about reconciliation between the husband and wife or parties. As they can get the Marriage conciliator to take an oath of secrecy to settle out of court.
  2. section 2, Consumer Protection Council Act, (Cap C25 LFN 2004), 
  3. sections 29 and 33, of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act (Cap. E12 LFN 2004), 
  4. Sections 4, 8, 9, 20, 22 of the Trade Disputes Act (Cap. T8 LFN 2004), 
  5. section 11 of the Petroleum Act(Cap. PI0 LFN 2004), 
  6. section 26 of the Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission Act, (Cap. N17 LFN 2004); 
  7. section 27 of the Public Enterprises (Privatization and Commercialization) Act, (Cap. P38 LFN 2004), 
  8. section 22 of the Nigerian LNG (Fiscal Incentives, Guarantee and Assurance) Act (Cap. N87 LFN 2004), 
  9. Section 49 of the Nigerian Co-operative Societies Act (Cap. N98 LFN 2004); 
  10. section 5 of the National War College Act (Cap N82 LFN 2004); 
  11. sections 3 and 6 of the National Boundary Commission, Etc. Act; (Cap. N10 LFN 2004), 
  12. section 3 of the Advisory Council on Religious Affairs Act (Cap. A8 LFN 2004); 
  13. section 4 of the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion Act( Cap. N62 LFN 2004), 
  14. section 4 of the Nigerian Communications Commission Act (Cap. N97 LFN 2004) etc.

(4) Court Laws and Rules

Lastly, Court laws and rules govern procedures and proceedings for the conduct of business in the court.

Top 55 Balance Sheet Keywords

Top 55 Balance Sheet Keywords

Top 55 balance sheet keywords relevant to business. It all started from account receivables to total non-current liabilities

Top 55 balance sheet keywords are available below.

1. Account Receivables

2. Account Payables

3. Accrual

4. Asset

5. Accumulated Depreciation

6. Bank Account

7. Bank Overdraft

8. Bill Payable

9. Cash and Cash Equivalents 

10. Computer Software

11. Copyrights 

12. Current Asset

13. Current Liabilities(within 1year) 

14. Current tax payable( Unpaid Tax)

15. Customer Lists.

16. Deferred tax 

17. Development Cost

18. Dividend payable(Unpaid Dividend)

19. Equity

20. Furniture and Fixtures

21. Goodwill 

22. Intangibles Noncurrent Asset 

23. Inventories 

24. Investments in Associates 

25. Investments in Equity Instruments 

26. Land and building

27. Liabilities 

28. Long-term Asset.

29. Long-term Borrowings 

30. Long-term Provisions 

31. Mortgage Payable 

32. Motion Picture Firm 

33. Net Assets 

34. Net Worth

35. Non-Controlling Interest 

36. Non-current Liabilities (over one year) 

37. Non-current Asset

38. Notes Payable 

39. Other Components Equity 

40. Other Current Assets 

41. Other Intangible Asset           

42. Patents

43. Prepaid

44. Property, Plant and Equipment

45. Retained Earnings 

46. Salary Payable

47. Share Capital 

48. Share part of Long Term Borrowings 

49. Short Term Borrowings (Short-term debt)

50. Short term provisions 

51. Tangible Non-current Asset 

52. Trade Mark

53. Total Assets 

54. Total current liabilities

55. Total Non-current liabilities    

Moreover, to get more Top 55 balance sheet keywords, get in touch with us

Accounting Tools Relevant for Freelancers

Accounting tools Relevant for freelancers.


Accounting Tools Relevant for Freelancers should be easy to use since several freelancers don’t have wide accounting knowledge.

As a freelancers it is however, essential that they know what accounting tools all are about. Accounting Tools are software that enables businesses to track and record financial activities in compliance with legal and taxation regulations.

It integrates several source documents like purchase order, invoice, bank reconciliation statement and so on together in one place. Also, because they have more valuable things to do than keeping accounting records. Moreover, they should have essential accounting functions, like expense tracking.

Furthermore, the only features useful to freelancers are tax calculation, mileage tracking, tracking number of orders. In addition, invoice tracking and having the accounting tools on cloud-based, which makes it easier for freelancers to manage.

How much money can freelance professionals make per year?

If you’re interested in freelancing, various types of work are available. Typically, professions that require more technical skills can earn more for freelancers.

In USA, there are 57 million freelancers’ (51%) say no amount of money can entice them to take traditional job. They enjoy the following.

  • Flexibility and
  • Ability to work and stay in any location.

CNBC report shows that the average hourly rate and annual salary for most in-demand freelancing jobs as stated below. This article put forward 13 professional freelancers with average hourly expectations..

  1. Writers: On average, a freelance writer earns $30-40/hr or around $42,000 annually.
  2. Editors: Freelance editors usually earn around $25 to $35 per hour, an average yearly salary of approximately $40,000.
  3. Programmers: Freelance programmers across different languages earn $60-70/hr or $120,000 annually.
  4. General developers:  A freelance developer typically charges $50-60 per hour, earning an annual salary of around $100,000.
  5. Mobile developers: Also, Mobile app developers typically earn an hourly rate of $55-65 as freelancers, equating to an annual salary of $100,000.
  6. Web developers: Freelance web developers earn an average of $90,000 annually by designing and creating websites at an hourly rate of $50-60.
  7. Graphic designers: A freelance graphic designer typically charges $40-45 per hour, earning an annual salary of around $90,000.
  8. Transcribers: Freelance transcriptionists can also earn an average of $20-25 per hour, adding to a yearly salary of around $32,000.
  9. Online marketers: Freelance digital marketers typically earn an hourly rate of around $50, resulting in an approximate annual salary of $100,000.
  10. Photographers: A freelance photographer has an hourly rate between $35-45/hr, with an annual salary of around $42,000.
  11. CRM managers: A customer relations manager (CRM) expects to make between $50 to 60/hr, with an year salary of approximately $120,000.
  12. Data analysts: A freelance who specialises on data analyst earn between $55 to 65/hr, annual salary of $100,000.
  13. Bookkeepers: Lastly, an individual who works as a freelance bookkeeper usually earns an hourly rate of $30 to $35, which translates to an annual salary of approximately $40,000.

8 Accounting Tools Relevant for Freelancers

As businesses increasingly expect growth, they must have accounting tools that cater to the needs of freelancers and content creators.

These accounting tools will help freelancers meet their business needs and fulfil their obligations to the government. With the growing demand, the average hourly wages of freelancers  can also increase, and proper data capturing becomes crucial.

  • QuickBooks

Two QuickBooks products are actually useful as Accounting Tools Relevant for Freelancers. They are QuickBooks self-employed and QuickBooks Online Simple Start.  

  • Wave

Similarly, Wave’s accounting software streamlines invoice and cash flow management, allowing entrepreneurs to focus on business growth.

  • Zoho Books

One of the best overall accounting tools important for freelancers. Zoho Books is an online accounting software that streamlines financial management, automating business workflows, and enables seamless collaboration across departments.

  • Freshbooks

FreshBooks provides time-saving tools to run your small business efficiently

  • ZipBooks

ZipBooks is a robust platform that simplifies the management of your business with its beautiful and intuitive interface.

  • Trulysmall Accounting

This tool streamlines invoicing by centralizing invoice creation, branding, previewing/sending, and receipt.

  • Freeagent

This tool is designed for freelancers to track and analyze their finances.

  • Fiverr workspace

Fiverr Workspace Blog provides effective payment and back-office management resources for small businesses and freelancers.

  • Bonsai

Freelancers will earn money, receive payments and also have debtors owing them for their services. Appropriate bookkeeping skills will always stand as the key difference between a performing or non-performing freelancing business.

Important of Accounting Tools Important for Freelancers

This a freelancers keeping records using accounting software

Source: Canvas.

  1. First, it makes them to keep track of incomes and expenses..
  2. It makes them to staying on top of all invoicing issues
  3. In addition, it makes them to keep accurate records for tax payment
  4. It makes them to appreciate the work of an accountant and auditor
  5. Also, is ensures the timely monitoring of daily business tasks and activities
  6. It provides  freelancers on how to take charge and defend business assets when bad times strike.
  7. Improves cashflow
  8. It makes  freelancers to be motivated of their performance
  9. It also protects  freelancers against the legal consequences of not keeping accurate records for tax purpose.
  10. It makes  freelancers to be more efficient
  11. It makes their work and reports to be more professional
  12. Lastly, it makes them to be organised and able to budget for the future earnings and expenses.


It is essential for every writer who earn income to be familiar with the accounting tools. Also, to submit documents come tax time and annual report to monitor financial performance. In addition, if you need help, there are many step-by-step tutorials on YouTube or contact ohimai consulting.

How accountant use drone technology

Drone Techbology relevant to accountant


How accountant use Drone technology to achieve their task depends on the sectors or schedule of activities. In addition, drones are unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that can fly remotely.

The global drone market predicts to increase from $26.3 billion in 2021 to $41.3 billion by 2026. Also, in 2020, both US and the UK used drones to deliver drugs during the COVID-19 pandemic (Appelbaum et al., 2020).

Drone technology has proven helpful in war zones and intelligence gathering and also in a civilian role, such as:

  • Accounting and Auditing Profession,
  • Search And Rescue,
  • Traffic Monitoring,
  • Videography,
  • Surveillance,
  • Delivery Services,
  • Weather Monitoring,
  • Drone-Based Photography,
  • Firefighting, Agriculture,
  • Personal Use.
  • Land surveying

These Countries use of Drone Technology

 Countries that make use of drone technology and require permission for all aerial drones through regulation.

Moreover, the regulation addresses different types of civil drone operations and their respective levels of risk as stated by European Union Aviation Safety Agency

  • In Germany, there are limited zones outside protected areas with high urban density or people conglomerations.
  • Also, all EU Member States, including Norway and Liechtenstein.
  • Switzerland and Iceland are also expected to apply this regulation soon.
  • In United States for example, they used drone technology for their operation(Ovaska-Few, 2017).
  • In 2013, Poland passed a law allowing the commercial operation of drones, which led to the birth of Drone Powered Solutions.
  • South Africa that has entirely established drone regulations in place which was carefully integrated into existing aviation law.
  • Lastly, in Australia, Rio Tinto who has its facility in a remote area planned in 2016 to start using drone to monitor mine sites including the staff.

Companies that have used drone in their workplace and in others area of operations.

  • It was recorded that PwC completed its first stock count audit using drone technology. With the assistance of a drone, they were able to capture images at a coal reserve in South Wales and used them to measure the volume of the coal, based on the measurement of volume.
  • Amazon and Google are already testing ways to deliver packages with drones.
  • Facebook has started using drones to provide internet connections in remote locations.
  • Basin Electric’s utilization of drones has enhanced efficiency and safety while concurrently reducing costs.
  • Furthermore, Ford Motor Company filed a patent to start the use of drones for dead bateries. The patent was filed on 3rd February, 2017 and circulated on March 8th, 2022, and assigned serial number 11271420.

How Accountant Use Drone Technology to the Accounting Profession.

expert controlling drone technology.

Source: Naira Technology

With the help of drone technology, however, accountants can now complete their work in a shorter amount of time. Technological advancements have significantly changed the accounting and auditing profession in recent years.

In 2017, the emergence of drone technology has revolutionized the accounting and auditing profession. Drones have opened up new possibilities for accountants to perform their tasks more efficiently and effectively.

Emerging technologies like AI, blockchain, big data, the IOT, and drone technology have revolutionized accounting profession (Qasim et al., 21).

For example, accounting and audit firms that work with clients in mining and inventory can utilize drone technology to take thousands of pictures and measurements of a site (Ovaska-Few,2017).

Also, this can aid in accurate assessments of holdings, making tasks like physically measuring coal a thing of the past. An estimated volume can be obtained in less time with just a two-meter GPS Tracking pole.

What are the Benefits of Drone Technology to the Accounting and Audit profession.


These list below are the 18 benefits of how accountant use drone in the accounting and auditing profession.

  1. Revenue Recognition
  2. Perform physical inventory: Drone could recount inventory if required-data feed repeatedly into audit app that re-performs the process. Using drones to automate livestock inventory count reduced count time from 681 hours to 19 hours (Qasim et al., 21).
  3. Asset valuation and Verification: Visually inspect the asset for impairment, safety is not an issue.
  4. Time-efficiency and effectiveness: Drone devices help to improve and increase effectiveness and efficiency in the accounting and auditing profession.
  5. Accuracy: Produce accurate data that can be relevant for future forecast and planning. It depend on how accountant use drone technology to collect insight into the condition of assets. This is faster, cheaper, safer and more accurate than traditional methods (Johnson, 2022).
  6. Save Cost: Drones may save money for accounting clients, who can use them for stock takes, mapping, safety monitoring and to inspect bridges and building.
  7. Productivity: It can enhance productivity
  8. Also, Reduce the risk of injury: he benefit in health and safety as the need for someone to climb over the coal pile are removed.
  9. Speed: Helps speed up some business and accounting processes.
  10. Monitoring strategies . Help monitor staff, operation and some dangerous zone. For instance, drones can assist the firm or staff to take account area difficult to reach.
  11. Storage of Long-term data: Moreover, drone methods allow for storage of long-term data. This is useful to account for physical factors (like weather, light conditions and geomorphology of the beach) for more spatio-temporal analysis.
  12. Automate and accelerate repetitive accounting tasks (Qasim et al., 21).
  13. High Quality Data Acquisition
  14. Enhance Mobility
  15. Reduce Downtime
  16. It improves disaster Recovery situation
  17. Enhance Trend Analysis: It depends on how accountant use drone technology to conduct trend analysis.
  18. Lastly, Enhance Maintenance Standards

The technology produces massive amounts of data that require interpretation and translation into meaningful information for informed business decisions.

Also, as accountants keeping up to date with new technologies and understanding their potential to enhance efficiency and effectiveness is essential. Developing the necessary skills to interpret and present data will enable them to add value to their employers. Since the drones technology are control by expert . However, drones are prone to making mistakes just like any other technology, which is why one can exempt them from errors.

Source: Rewires

Furthermore, competent accountants who are conversant with latest technology, play a crucial role in helping companies thrive and maintain a competitive advantage. It is imperative that organizations have skilled accountants on their team to achieve these goals.

Implications of How Accountant use drone Technology to the Accountants and Auditors

  1. Be part of the at least 95% that will accept this new technology if they must prepare for the future.
  2. Develop a new skill that is all-encompassing for them to be relevant every time and drive the development of accounting profession.
  3. For companies to successfully transform, there will be a great demand for individuals with fundamental knowledge and expertise. For instance, such individuals must possess the necessary skills and understanding to support the company’s transformational goals.
  4. Also, become a consultant in the field to remain relevant and being in change of the world where we live by data.
  5. Become a strategic thinker.
  6. Apply professional judgement whenever is necessary and obtain a better results
  7. Establish Drone-focused department that enable accounting firms to handle all matter related to drone.
  8. Check the impact of drones on client’s business operations.
  9. Lastly, it is vital for every accountant or auditors to be familiar with the present drone regulations in their countries.


In this article, the writer examined how accountant use drone technology and to achieve their work on daily basis. Similarly, drones can improve the accuracy and efficiency of audits. However, how they can use it to collect data and perform inspections in hard-to-reach areas.

Consequently, the article highlighted the potential impact of commercial drones on the accounting profession, with predictions that this technology will revolutionize traditional accounting procedures (Ovaska-Few, 2017). Accounting professionals and academics need to recognize the significance of drone technology and patronize the suppliers as it is here to stay. In addion, the sooner we adapt to this technology and use it to their advantage, the better. Accountants and auditors are condition to embrace this new technology and see it as an improvement to their jobs instead of threat.

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